THESIS: FROM WRITING TO DEFENSE

The thesis, like any original document, must respect the principles of intellectual property. It is imperative to cite the sources of the documents used (text, figure, image ... must be followed by a reference), otherwise, this is considered plagiarism. No quality thesis can be done without the significant help of the thesis director. The length of the thesis does not determine the quality. It is strongly recommended to adopt a short, clear, concise, and precise style. The theses of articles (resulting from an article published in a journal) are accepted. If the article is already published, it can be annexed as a PDF version. In all cases (article published, in the process of publication or in the process of being published), the article in English must be integrated directly into the thesis. It will also be advisable to add a more general introduction to situate the subject more fully, as well as a general discussion to place the results of the study in the current scientific context. Under no circumstances should the "publisher" version of the article be reproduced, that is to say with the layout of the journal, to avoid editorial conflicts.
Likewise, we do not ask to systematically translate the article already published or in the process of being published.
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Methodologically
The scientific and methodological aspects must be anticipated by the thesis director, in particular in the context of obtaining any necessary authorizations beforehand.

Layout
For online distribution, your thesis must be submitted in PDF format. The 1st and the 4th of coverage must be included in the PDF file of your thesis. Acknowledgments and dedications will be deleted.
For the 1st and 4th cover, must strictly comply with the Faculty of models.
- Sample 1st cover: Word file (up 11.06.20)
- Sample 4th cover: Word file (up 09.02.19)
Font: preferably use Arial font size 12 (or possibly Times New Roman), because they are conventionally used and recommended in magazines.
Line spacing: Double line spacing is recommended.
Margins: sufficient margins of more than a centimeter and a half must be ensured.

The thesis defense takes place in two stages: a presentation by the doctoral student of his research work followed by a question-answer exchange with the members of the jury.
Discover the different steps to take into account to properly write your thesis.

What does it take to write?
Writing an essay is above all answering a question and expressing your opinion by arguing and giving examples. There are three main parts to an essay: The Introduction - The Development - The Conclusion.

Before writing
If you need to identify the problem with a text or an image, choose a question that will not put you in difficulty. It is often easier to answer a closed question than an open question. At least the plans will be different.
Once the problem and the type of plan have been defined, you must look for your arguments and your examples.
Examples can be taken from your daily life, your personal experiences, your general knowledge,….
The examples can be illustrative, that is to say, placed after the argument, or else argumentative, that is to say, placed before or superimposed on the argument.
If you can't explain your point clearly, it's not good.
Writing
The organization of your essay should be very clear. It's about seeing the different parts of the essay before you even read it.
Write the introduction
This should be simple and clear. These are the first sentences read by readers, so you must lay the foundations for your development without showing your opinion. It is made up of three parts.
Bring the topic
= A sentence presenting the topic in context.
The problem
= The question you chose during your reflection. You can ask the question directly or use indirect speech: We can then ask ourselves if / why / how ...
Announce the plan
= Show the thread of your thought to the readers so that they follow your development. It is preferable - because less academic - to announce the plan indirectly, by asking questions, by articulating a sentence so that the plan emerges from it. However, if this seems too complicated, write several sentences presenting your plan with logical articulators.
  • describe development
There must be a balance in the parts of your development, so you should take care to find roughly the same number of arguments for your parties at your reflection. Your development must be organized. For this the use of logical links is essential. As a reminder, here are connectors that can be used depending on what you want to express.

write the conclusion
Just like the introduction, the conclusion is very important because they are the last sentences read by readers. It is made up of three parts.
Proofreading
Check the consistency of your essay.
☞ Make sure that the ideas flow together logically.
☞ Be sure to eliminate repetitions of words, but also and above all of the ideas.
☞ Be careful not to contradict yourself.
Avoid neutrality. You can be tolerant and indicate your tolerance. On the other hand, you cannot be neutral and say: “I don't care”; "I have no opinion", ...